This last week there was a major internet flap when mom and blogger Claire Gross posted a blog on Babble.com that she bathed her three-month-old son Charlie maybe once every week or so. “Yep, total confession time,” Claire writes. ” I really don’t bathe my baby.” This blog post prompted an online firestorm of negativity wherein parents around the globe heaped on criticism upon criticism, accusing her of neglecting her child at worst and losing valuable maternal bonding time at best. In further media interviews after the story went viral Ms. Gross has revealed her pediatrician advised her that her second child’s delicate skin was drying out too much due to daily bathing so she scaled it down a notch and found a happy balance that worked for them.
So yes, total confession time. I really don’t wash my grapes. And well, neither does any winemaker I know or have worked with in the decade and a half I’ve been making wine. This sometimes comes as a surprise to a public accustomed to salad spinners, special vegetable-washing soap and double and triple-washed and cellophane-bagged spinach in the supermarket. On numerous occasions giving winery tours, I’ll grab a handful of grapes from the picking bins as my group of visitors watches the grapes poised over the destemmer. I’ll pop a delicious Pinot Noir berry in my mouth and offer the cluster around, only to hear, “Oh…..don’t you wash them first?”
Nope. We don’t.
Nowhere in my winemaking education, formal or on-the-job, across the state of California and over two continents, was I shown that washing grapes before fermentation was necessary.
The reality is that “No human pathogen can survive in wine,” as one of my favorite UC Davis professors, Dr. Linda Bisson used to tell us in the first-year winemaking class. Because of the high acidity (low pH) and high alcohol levels in a typical wine, no bacteria or virus that could infect a person (like a cold or flu bug, or even worse) can survive in that environment. This is part of the reason why, for the ancient Romans, Greeks and many other societies, wine was used to help treat wounds and was considered a medicine. Even though wine microbes like Lactobacilli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are happy in that kind of harsh environment, bugs that live in the human body are not.
Winemakers also know what was sprayed (or in most cases, not sprayed, as grapes are a low-input crop compared to others) in the vineyard during the growing year. In fact, residual fungicides or other chemicals disrupt a healthy fermentation, which is why winegrape growers are more limited than other fruit and vegetable growers in what they may use in a vineyard and why we ask our growers (or do it ourselves, if we are the grower) to provide meticulous records of anything applied.
Are there sometimes mites, dust and bugs from the vineyard? Sure. Once I even spent an hour rescuing a dozen little green frogs from a bin of grapes as they went across the sorting table (no idea how they got there, must have been hanging out on the vine for some reason). But most importantly, there are also valuable indigenous yeast and bacteria cells that can help contribute to a healthy and more interesting fermentation and eventually, wine. From Bordeaux to Burgundy, Modesto to Mendocino, grapes get picked, come into the winery, get crushed and become wine, without a grape-washing step involved*.
I really never gave it much thought before, but I suppose we could add grape-washing to our litany of winemaking steps. Some might welcome it as a way to make squeaky-clean wine that they could market as “Triple Washed!” Some would no doubt decry it as yet one more unnatural and non-traditional winemaking “intervention”. It would undoubtedly be a waste of precious water and depending on residual levels, might dilute the wine. Every day we are learning more and more about the microbial world within and around us and its valuable contribution to our health and well-being. Why wash off microbes that might be beneficial in fermentation, or at least benign? The dust that comes in on the grapes settles down to the bottom of the fermenter and gets racked off and left behind anyway.
To side with Claire Gross, I really don’t bathe my baby much either (Bryce is now almost eight months old). He has dry skin and as per his pediatrician we find a once-a-week dunk works just fine for us, thanks very much. So here’s to the great unwashed! Winemaking, like parenting, is an ancient, and yes sometimes dirty, art.
*If someone does wash their grapes first, contact me! I’d be curious to do a follow-up blog post!
Alison loves answering questions about the weird in wine and published the WineMaker’s Answer Book in 2007. Interact with us at Garnetvineyards.com @GarnetVineyards and on Facebook!
Well, the Turrentine blog states that the North Coast Chardonnay and Pinot Noir harvest is about 50% complete. From the window of my Subaru flashing by on River Road or from walking through my company’s Sonoma Coast vineyards (we sell some of our fruit to other wineries in addition to growing all of Garnet’s fruit), I would put it closer to 75% complete.
Even the Sonoma Coast Chardonnay crop, which I picked last week after anxiously waiting for it to ripen, is finally in the cellar. Good thing, too because the little bit of moisture we saw Monday night in Napa and Sonoma Counties probably spells the end of active Chardonnay ripening time before botrytis takes over. If you didn’t have your Chardonnay picked before, now’s the time to get it in the barn. That is the double-edged sword of growing delicate thin-skinned grapes like Pinot Noir and Chardonnay in extreme cool and late-ripening climates like the” Slownoma Coast”; you need to wait long enough for perfect ripeness but not so long so that the fruit melts off the vine.
The end of a crazy Sonoma Coast harvest for Garnet which atypically began two weeks earlier than expected but now has modulated due to two cool spells, is in sight. Now we start really focusing on our Monterey County Vineyards near the Santa Lucia Highlands, where the Pinot is just about perfect and the Chardonnay is actively being pressed. I still, however, have one block of Pinot Noir out at Rodger’s Creek vineyard in the Petaluma Gap area still hanging, waiting until it tastes just right.
This site is high above Stage Gulch Road on the eastern edge of the Petaluma Gap appellation and experiences extremely low yields and screamingly high winds. Both factors, along with it being clone 777, imbue this Pinot Noir literally with a thicker skin, enabling it to hang tough long after my last Russian River Pinot Noir has been picked. Rodgers Creek Vineyard is always the last Pinot Noir I pick in the North Coast and for me it is one of those “wow” vineyards. The list of clients who share its Pinot crop with me is prestigious and score-grabbing. A large portion of the Garnet Sonoma Coast blend is from Rodgers Creek, but I always set aside a few precious barrels of my favorite blocks for a vineyard designate bottling (selecting special cuvees: a topic for another blog entry, as is the definition of “Sonoma Coast”).
So the end of another Garnet Vineyards harvest is in sight, at least on the Sonoma Coast. The Monterey Pinot and Chard crop should all be picked within the next two weeks and I’m looking forward to not scanning the weather reports so much. Making Pinot Noir and Chardonnay means harvest is hectic but usually quite short. First day of harvest was September 3 on Stanly Ranch in Carneros. The last day for Garnet is set to be just exactly a month later on the Sonoma Coast and just two weeks later down in Monterey. Now…..what to do with it all?…..
Copyright Alison Crowe 2013
Here at Garnet Vineyards the Pinot Noir on the North Coast has been coming in just one block after another. The tsunami of grapes that I saw coming two weeks ago has already hit and residual waves are gently lapping at the winery as we walk ripening blocks of Pinot through the tanks one by one. The stellar cellar crew (say that five times fast) is getting into the groove of crushing first thing, monitoring Brix levels (we measure the juice sugar levels to keep tabs on the health of each fermentation) in the morning, and pumping over and punching down twice a day to make sure the cap (floating grape skins) is getting mixed up with the juice to extract color and tannin.
Mother Nature has smiled on us this week and hasn’t served up any more heat spikes (knock on French Oak) like that little one we had ten days ago. The mild weather we’ve been experiencing in Sonoma lately has meant that the Pinot clusters at Rodger’s Creek and Diamond Vineyards are being left to ripen literally in their own sweet time. We also are just about to get started pulling in Pinot Noir from our Alta Loma Vineyard in Monterey County; the Pinot harvest there should progress at a comfortable pace.
So who’s now on my “watch list” this week? Our Sonoma Coast Chardonnay vineyards, of course! It is supposedly an “early ripening” varietal, but this year the Chardonnay seems to be ripening even later than in 2012, which was a bit of a late year for Chardonnay to begin with. To find out what’s up, I placed a call to my friend and colleague Pete Opatz, Winemaker/Owner of Route 128 Winery and all-around grape expert at Silverado Premium Properties in Napa. Pete says, “Typically you start getting into the Chardonnay about halfway through the Pinot harvest.”
This year’s two week delay from normal is, “…probably due to a boomerang reaction to last year’s heavier crops, lower Potassium levels in soils, and a small heat spike we had in June, which caused leaf lamina damage in Chardonnay,” Pete says. The quality of the grapes shouldn’t be affected, which is good news. There is a tiny cool-down phase in the weather predicted for this weekend, though I’m not worried about any appreciable amount of precipitation. However, if it’s not windy enough to dry things out again, we’ll start having to watch for botrytis….but let’s not allow the paranoid scenarios of “what if” to make us spiral into a worrisome Harvest depression. It’s a gorgeous day today and we just have to wait for those acid levels to come down and flavor and sugar levels come up….let’s all remember it’s still just the middle of September. Patience!
2013 will most likely be remembered, by those who pick grapes and make wine as the year we almost drowned. Yes, quality is looking great, sure, I like the aromas on the first Stanly Ranch Pinot ferments but who has time for critic-baiting niceties when you’re staring down the throat of the beast, and the grape tsunami of 2013 is about to eat you and your cowering crush crew for breakfast?
This is the deal: just about everything, especially in Napa and Sonoma Counties is ripening at once. I’ve never seen such narrow brix spreads between such disparate varietals as Alexander Valley Merlot, Carneros Chardonnay and Russian River Pinot Noir in recent memory. Garnet Vineyards makes wine in a little shared “garagiste” winery space off the square in Sonoma and, though we just make Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, our colleagues (a new definition for “co-fermenters”?) make many different “flavors”- Dry Creek Zin, Sonoma Sauvignon Blanc, Alexander Valley Cab…..and we are all in amazement at how quickly this harvest will thunder to completion.
Though the actual start of harvest for Garnet Vineyards was only a week ahead of normal (first week in September, rather than the second), the grapes that follow on our Pinot Noir and Chardonnay are ripening a good two weeks ahead of normal.
That means that my friends’ Alexander Valley Merlot is going to want to be picked right when the tanks are full of Russian River Pinot Noir fermentations…so it’s a good thing I press out warm (Pinot Noir doesn’t benefit from extended maceration like Cabernet does)and have the barrels ready to go to clear the fermentation tanks for what’s coming next. 2013 will certainly be one of the most condensed, fast and furious harvest I’ve ever experienced.
I grew up in Santa Barbara and worked for years at Santa Cruz’s Bonny Doon Vineyard where the interns and the winemaking team would sometimes make a dash to Cowell’s or to any number of our favorite surf spots for a little dip. One of the first lessons of surfing is when you see a big wave forming and you want to get the next one, the last thing you do is retreat back to the shore. It’s sure to crunch you up and roll you under the kelp like a load of dirty laundry. You have to face the wave, power over it and pop safely over to the other side, to await your next set. Though I don’t think a lot of surfing breaks will happen for anyone this year, here’s hoping we can take on the challenge and tame this tidal wave of grapes. Take a deep breath. It’s guaranteed to be a wild ride!
All photos copyright Alison Crowe and Chris Purdy Photography, purdypictures.com
At Garnet Vineyards I have the luxury of knowing my 2012 vintage will be safely in the bottle by the end of this week, before the first grape even thinks about hitting the crush pad. However, many of my wine-making buddies across the state aren’t looking forward to such a relaxing prospect over their Labor Day weekend. Some are frantically getting wines out of barrel, making last-minute blends and getting wines into the bottle in a final attempt to clear the decks before the 2013 tons start flying. And, it appears, some are still lingering in a “normal year” mindset even though it’s starting to look like 2013 might be earlier, faster and more condensed than usual.
In Napa, Sonoma and the Central Coast, grape trucks for still wine are already on the road as early-ripening varietals like Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Grigio follow hard on the heels of an action-packed early sparkling harvest about a week ahead of schedule. Rumors of Napa Cabs at higher-than-normal brixes for this date are already making winery managers nervous about crush-pad traffic jams as multiple varietals try to get in the door at once.
“ It’s definitely caught us a little by surprise,” says Laffort’s Jillian Johnson, who provides both bottling and finished wine supplies to wineries statewide and so is in a good position to observe what winemakers are working on as the weeks (days?) to harvest tick down.
“People are still bottling and I’m still getting orders for fining wines,” Johnson reports (fining is an optional pre-bottling step, like bentonite fining of excess protein in white wines). She says, “It seems like the mind-set hasn’t even shifted yet to harvest. It’s because people are still dealing with so much wine from 2012. They really do have to bottle to make room for the incoming wine.”
At Garnet Vineyards, we are definitely seeing our first Carneros Pinot, Stanly Ranch, tracking 7 days earlier than average. It’s still nowhere near the “4 weeks early!!” level that some winemakers were talking about after a few warm weeks this spring, but without a doubt 2013 will be remembered as an earlier year. Even the recent monsoonal pattern hasn’t really dampened ripening, as temperatures have achieved low to mid-80’s (F) consistently, which is perfect sugar-accumulating weather. The gentle, mild growing season in 2013 has meant that the vine’s vascular structures are in tip-top shape, basically paving a sugar superhighway to ripeness. Flavors are also developing earlier than I would expect as well, which is great news and means that the critical sensory elements will be there to match the incoming sugar and the gently falling acid. So far (knock on lots of wood!) it looks like the stars are getting in alignment for another delicious year.
However….we have a long way to go before we can all heave a sigh of relief and put a cork in 2013. Chardonnay and Cabernet might be right on top of each other, and not many people I’ve talked to are thinking they’ll be crushing much into November.
This all points to a fast and condensed harvest, one that stresses out both people and equipment as we work longer hours to pick, crush and barrel down all the incoming fruit in a shorter time period. And there’s no denying a generous (but super-high quality) 2012 has left many of us pushing the envelope on getting that vintages’ blends into the bottle and out of the winery.
There’s no doubt about it, it’s high time to muster the crews, roll out the barrels and get our collective harvest hats on. Like Jillian says, “Look around on the roads, there are harvest trucks out there, it’s time to figure out your orders!” It’s time to batten down the hatches and get ready for another roller coaster ride, one that looks to be particularly tasty, fast and exciting!
Girlandthegrape.com is the blog of Alison Crowe
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Ah, it’s that time of year again….when we dust off the picking bins, spiff up the barrels, train the cellar interns how to use the winery barbecue (oh wait, I mean the presses) and generally work ourselves into a lather talking about the impending harvest and whether or not we’ll get Labor Day off. The last couple of weeks in Napa and Sonoma, all the dither seems to be about Harvest 2013 being super early. I’m just not seeing it, folks.
Though a couple of brief heat waves in late spring followed by earlier-than-normal north coast wildfires hinted at a hot, dry (and therefore early) growing season, the recent cool weather has really modulated grapevine ripening. About a month ago gossip at the Napa Farmer’s Market and around town was all about the first picking being three to four weeks earlier than normal state-wide.
Granted, the first grapes for sparkling wine have already been picked in Napa Valley and friends of mine who crush grapes from the hot California interior have started to bring in the very first Pinot Gris and other early-ripening whites. The same sources, however, report that Lodi really hasn’t started to heat up (so to speak) on its picking activity and my bubbly-making buddies in Sonoma admit that they are still taking a relaxed attitude toward scheduling grapes and that the first headline-grabbing (done on purpose one wonders?) photo-op picks were only about a week earlier than normal.
This all tallies with what I’m seeing around Garnet Vineyard’s neck of the woods in the Sonoma Coast, Carneros and Monterey County appellations. Looking at my historical brixes, Stanly Ranch Pinot Noir in Carneros is set to be picked the first week of September and my Sonoma Coast Rodgers Creek Pinot noir, which at its high elevation always ripens a little more slowly, are tracking about 5 days earlier than last year. Since 2012 was a slightly later than average harvest, I’m betting 2013 will track about 5-7 days earlier than average. Not super-early, and just about right.
Yields are mixed, with some areas looking like an average to slightly average-plus crop size, while some areas are looking like weaker-than-average. Sometimes higher tons per acre can delay a ripening date while less crop can ripen earlier, but I’m estimating those effects will be felt in just two to three days on either side, not weeks. In Napa and Sonoma we are looking at a very moderate and seasonal weather pattern for the next 10 days, which means perfect grape-ripening conditions with no heat spikes on the horizon to speed things up.
So I’m still making plans for a relaxing Labor Day weekend. Put a few bottles of bubbly on ice, get out the cooler and fire up that barbecue (the interns can always use more practice, right?). We might even pack up the car, the dog, the kids and head out of town….we just won’t go very far.
Copyright 2013 Alison Crowe
Hailing from California’s Central Coast has its advantages, one of which is whenever I go visit friends and family back home in Carpinteria, a sleepy beach town near Santa Barbara, I always am sent back north to Napa with a box full of buttery avocados.
The same conditions that make the Central Coast so fabulous for Pinot Noir production, namely the cool ocean influence, mild winters and warm days also mean that avocados thrive on the fog-draped slopes and canyons near the sea.
Avocados have a reputation for being a difficult food and wine match, supposedly because of the “green” notes that can sometimes appear; think artichokes or asparagus, two other notoriously troublesome wine partners.
I, however, take what is perhaps a very Central Coastian “laid back” approach. First of all I always make sure I have a perfectly ripe avocado. Give it a gentle squeeze (no fingertips here, try to use the palms of your hands to avoid bruising). If it is uniformly and softly yielding, it’s a good bet it’ll be much lighter on the “green” components sometimes exhibited by hard and mealy supermarket hand-grenades.
Secondly, I take a cue from the rest of the meal. If I’m making a scallop and avocado ceviche with lime and cilantro, a chilled, acidic Albariño or even a lightly-oaked Chardonnay can work. If the meal is a little bit more robust, like a grilled Santa Maria-style tri-tip topped with buttery avocado slices, I will always reach for a fruity Pinot Noir like my 2011 Garnet Monterey Pinot. I love the smokiness of the meat with the Pinot Noir and find the acidity of the wine is enough of a match for the fat in the silky avocados.
Carpinteria is home to the world famous Avocado Festival and many of our best friends are long-time local avocado ranchers. My parents’ home is ringed by many decades-old trees and my grandparents also raise quite a few of the nubbly green fruits just south of us in Ventura County.
We always make sure to eat our fill while we are visiting (B.L.A.T. anyone?) but continue to enjoy the increasingly softer fruit in our kitchen in Napa. When the last ones get very ripe and we know they won’t last another day, we make a batch of guacamole and pop a glass of Garnet Monterey Pinot to remember our vacation and savor the flavors of California’s Central coast.
Alison’s Central Coast Guacamole
3 Hass avocados
1 lime, juiced
1 lemon, juiced
1 tsp freshly ground black pepper
1 tsp freshly ground sea salt
With a sturdy, large chef’s knife, cut avocados lengthwise around the pit, take between your two hands and twist gently to separate the halves. Cradling the half with the pit still in it in a kitchen towel (for protection) in your hand, give the pit a smart whack with the blade of the knife, embedding the blade firmly in the pit. Give the knife a twist and remove the pit. Scoop out flesh with a spoon into a bowl. Add remaining ingredients and mash roughly (or finely, your preference) with a fork or whisk. Serve immediately. If you need to store it any length of time before serving, sprinkle surface with lemon juice and press plastic wrap down onto the surface of the guacamole to avoid browning. It never lasts that long at our house!
I often will just keep my guacamole simple (and citrusy!) but to further enhance the flavor profile or better match it to the rest of your menu, feel free to add the following as well:
1 tablespoon finely chopped cilantro
½ tsp ground cumin
1 small tomato, seeded and chopped
½ tsp ground cayenne pepper
Winemaking Begins With People
The old saw goes, “Great wines begin in the vineyard.” I beg to differ. “Don Blackburn, one of California’s best crafters of Pinot Noir, used to have a sign posted on his office door that read, “Winemaking Begins With People.” His point was that no matter how expensive the barrel, talented the winemaker or mind-bogglingly stellar the fruit, all could be ruined by one too short tank wash cycle or one lab tech who didn’t bother to re-check that weird VA (volatile acidity). He also meant that great wines are a team effort, made great by many small acts, expertly done. Only people can do that.”
I wrote those words in an article in Wine Business Monthly back in 2006, and they still resonate for me today. When I’m walking through the vine rows at Stanly Ranch in Carneros, impressed at how great of a suckering job the crew did on the Pinot Noir it’s a reminder of the hard work it took to get such a job done.
When I unscrew a bottle of Garnet Monterey Pinot Noir I am humbled that even though I may have the title “Winemaker” and get a lot of the credit in the public eye, it took a group effort to get the wine in that bottle, from the cellar intern pressure washing the floors to Garnet’s Assistant Winemaker Barbara making sure that the screw-capper was working just right.
Especially when I pour at events and get to chat face to face with people enjoying my wines, “Winemaking Begins With People” takes center stage and remains one of the best parts of being in the wine business.
Though I last worked with Don as a cellar intern in 1998 learning how to make estate-grown Pinot Noir, I find myself remembering his famous office-door quote all the time and am so glad we remained good friends as I advanced in my own career.
Don is unfortunately no longer with us; we lost him far too early at age 54, in 2009, after a yearlong battle with cancer.
Actually, let me rephrase that.
As long as winemaking continues being a team sport, and one where competitors even cheer each other on from the sidelines, Don Blackburn and his truism “Winemaking Begins With People” will indeed still be with us.
Winemaking 101: How to Properly Un-Bung a Barrel
Worried you won’t know the proper protocol next time someone invites you barrel tasting? Applying for your first harvest job in the cellar and want to exhibit perfectly turned barrel-care etiquette? Don’t know your bung-hole from your wine thief? I’m here to help. Here’s how to expertly broach a barrel. Simplicity, swiftness (in the case of harvest intern barrel sampling work orders) and cleanliness (always!) are the rules of the game.
First step: Gently rock the bung back and forth to dislodge. Don’t just pull straight up. Especially if there’s a vacuum, which is a good thing when the wine is aging, this will take a couple of tries.
Pull it out and place it wet end up on the barrel- very important!. This keeps the portion that touches the wine clean. The tops of barrels can be amazingly dusty and dirty.
Insert your barrel thief (yes, it really is called that!) into the bunghole (yes, it’s really called that too) with your finger out. This way the wine floats up into the barrel thief’s tube for sampling.
Put your finger over the barrel thief to create a vacuum and trap a sample of wine.
Take it over to your glass and release your finger, letting the wine flow into your glass.
Take an appreciative swirl and sniff! Spit into a bucket or the drain (If you are a cellar intern, be sure that bottles are labeled appropriately, that you’ve siphoned out the requisite volume, and that caps are replaced tightly on the samples. If you are a winery visitor, be sure your hip flask is unlabeled, you’ve siphoned out the requisite volume and the cap is replaced tightly before putting said flask into your hip pocket…….)
Replace the bung in the barrel and give it a good twist.
Now bang it with your fist so the bung is tight in there- a good seal is imperative for good aging! Sometimes barrels can off-gas slightly during aging (carbon dioxide is often naturally produced during the process) so we don’t want any bungs popping off! Once bunged up again tightly, hose off any wine drops that have dripped onto the top of the barrel.
Thanks for taking our un-bunging tutorial. May your glasses always be full, your pours generous and your bungs easy to remove!
photo credit: Barbara Ignatowski, Garnet Vineyards Assistant Winemaker
Wine Myths: Always Serve Reds at Room Temperature….one more wine myth to kick to the curb this summer
Though especially welcome in summertime, and especially tasty with regards to Pinot Noir, I break this “rule” year round and with many varietals to boot. In the depths of December you can still find me putting a slight chill on many reds, from a sassy Beaujolais Nouveau with at Thanksgiving up to some big and burly Syrah’s on Valentine’s Day. I just like my reds served a little cool and find that I prefer around 50-58 F or so, far below “room temperature”.
Summertime, however, is when I’m most likely to put a red on ice. “Room temp” in our 1898 Victorian house in Napa doesn’t mean 68F like it does in November and as ambient temperatures rise, my tolerance for the more volatile components in red wines
(i.e. alcohol, aldehydes, and volatile acidity) goes down. I find it hard to appreciate a red wine when it’s so warm even its modest 13.80% alcohol hits me like a ton of grapes.
Solution? Use a tabletop wine cooler, an ice bucket, one of those new stick-it-in-the-bottle gadgets like the corkcicle™ or just simply stick the bottle in the fridge for 30 minutes. A slight chill can focus aroma, tame the perception of alcohol and can make a red seem more refreshing, especially when the weather heats up.